Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Manufacturing and evaluation of elastic properties of glass fiber reinforced polymers material

Nguyen Luong Thien, Nguyen Tien The, Tran Nguyen Quyet


Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is a new material with many advanced features in terms of strength, light weight, anti-corrosion ability on salty environment, which may replace steel. In this work, we present the technology of manufacturing of GFRP in bar form: pultrusion technology. The production line at the factory is imported from abroad. The objective of the research is to step by step mastering the technology and fully master the production line system of GFRP in bar form in Vietnam. We have fabricated successfully a product of high applicability, which has great potential for development (GFRP in bar form with large diameter, 20 mm). Pultrusion is one of technologies to fabricate the polymer composites used in many industries such as in aerospace, automotive and construction ones industries. The high performance pultruded products that are produced by this technique offer high fiber content of at least 70%. In order to produce high quality pultruded profiles, there are variables such as fiber impregnation, resin viscosity, pulling speed and curing temperature that have to be considered and these requests are discussed in this study. The aim of the present work is evaluating elastic properties like Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio from analytical methods such as Rule of mixture, Halpin-Tsai, Nielsen, Chamis and Hashin elastic models and compared with experiment results. The result shows a big difference. The mechanical characteristics of the GFRP D20 bar depend not only on the composition of components (fiber and epoxy) but also on the manufacturing technology. We propose a further research direction: to optimize the technological element in manufacturing GFRP bar with large diameter.


GFRP; pultrusion; Young's modulus; Poisson's ratio

Full Text:



R. M. Jones. Mechanics of composite materials. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2nd edition, (1975).

K. K. Chawla. Composite materials: science and engineering. Springer Science & Business Media, 3rd edition, (2012).

Y.-J. You, J.-H. J. Kim, S.-J. Kim, and Y.-H. Park. Methods to enhance the guaranteed tensile strength of GFRP rebar to 900 MPa with general fiber volume fraction. Construction and Building Materials, 75, (2015), pp. 54–62.

A. Patnaik, P. Kumar, S. Biswas, and M. Kumar. Investigations on micro-mechanical and thermal characteristics of glass fiber reinforced epoxy based binary composite structure using finite element method. Computational Materials Science, 62, (2012), pp. 142–151.

P. H. Larsson and R. B. Pipes. Development of a facility for pultrusion of thermoplastic-matrix composites. Composites Manufacturing, 2, (2), (1991), pp. 114–123.

N. Shakya, J. A. Roux, and A. L. Jeswani. Effect of resin viscosity in fiber reinforcement compaction in resin injection pultrusion process. Applied Composite Materials, 20, (6), (2013), pp. 1173–1193.

B. R. Suratno, L. Ye, and Y.-W. Mai. Simulation of temperature and curing profiles in pultruded composite rods. Composites Science and Technology, 58, (2), (1998), pp. 191–197.

S. M. Sapuan. Tropical natural fiber composites: properties, manufacture and applications. Springer Science + Business Media, Singapore, (2014).

H. Y. Sastra, J. P. Siregar, S. M. Sapuan, and M. M. Hamdan. Tensile properties of Arenga pinnata fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 45, (1), (2006), pp. 149–155.

S. M. Sapuan, M. Harimiand, and M. A. Maleque. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 28, (2), (2003), pp. 171–182.

U. M. K. Anwar, M. T. Paridah, H. Hamdan, S. M. Sapuan, and E. S. Bakar. Effect of curing time on physical and mechanical properties of phenolic-treated bamboo strips. Industrial Crops and Products, 29, (1), (2009), pp. 214–219.

A. Carlsson and B. T. Astrom. Modeling of heat transfer and crystallization kinetics in thermoplastic composites manufacturing: Pultrusion. Polymer Composites, 19, (4), (1998), pp. 352–359.

K. Chandrashekhara, S. Sundararaman, V. Flanigan, and S. Kapila. Affordable composites using renewable materials. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 412, (1-2), (2005), pp. 2–6.

A. Memon and A. Nakai. The processing design of jute spun yarn/PLA braided composite by pultrusion molding. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 5, (2013), pp. 1–8.

M. Giordano and L. Nicolais. Resin flow in a pultrusion process. Polymer Composites, 18, (6), (1997), pp. 681–686.

D. Sharma, T. A. McCarty, J. A. Roux, and J. G. Vaughan. Fluid mechanics analysis of a two-dimensional pultrusion die inlet. Polymer Engineering & Science, 38, (10), (1998), pp. 1611–1622.

D. Sharma, T. A. McCarty, J. A. Roux, and J. G. Vaughan. Pultrusion die pressure response to changes in die inlet geometry. Polymer composites, 19, (2), (1998), pp. 180–192.

S. I. Krishnamachari and L. J. Broutman. Applied stress analysis of plastics: A mechanical engineering approach. Springer Science & Business Media, (2013).

C. C. Chamis. Mechanics of composite materials: past, present, and future. Journal of Composites, Technology and Research, 11, (1), (1989), pp. 3–14.

D. C. Pham. Essential solid mechanics. Institute of Mechanics, Hanoi, (2013). (in Vietnamese).

T. N. Quyet, P. D. Chinh, and T. A. Binh. Equivalent-inclusion approach for estimating the elastic moduli of matrix composites with non-circular inclusions. Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 37, (2), (2015), pp. 123–132.

DOI: Display counter: Abstract : 78 views. PDF : 20 views.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology



Editorial Office of Vietnam Journal of Mechanics

3rd Floor, A16 Building, 18B Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tel: (+84) 24 3791 7103